jueves, 2 de diciembre de 2010

Assignment #3: Post-Modernist Literature

Compare and Contrast the 2 Post-Modern Works with 2 of the other 4 Works you have read.

books: The Atrocity Exhibition by Ballard, J.G and The Russia House by Le Carrè J.

The Murders in the Rue Morgue: Edgard Allan Poe based his work into elemnts related to the detective fiction genre. All descriptions of situations, places or people in this work are characteristics of that time. Moreover this story have a logical order about the murders events.
In fact this work show the reality of that time for that it is a clear example of victorian era.
The Atrocity Exhibiiton: This work show how the mass media to take part on the mind of a doctor which needs to investigate about events of the deaths in the world using the mass media like his principal tools to get it.
The Quiet American: Is a novel involved in a time of war. the main topic in this work are the elements related to spies into the world war. The story try to show the innocence and idealism that people in that time had. The most important is this novel had a lot of influences and for that it get to become into films.
The Russia House: This work also got to become into a film and also it show elements related spies into the british secret intelligence service. This work shows a main politic topic related to patriotism and courage of a new world order.

viernes, 5 de noviembre de 2010

Assignment #2: Modernist Literature

01. Which 2 readings did you choose?

The Quiet American and Our Man in Havana by Graham Greene

02. Compare (3) and contrast (3) the reading you completed with the ppts. on Modernist culture and literature.

The Quiet American: The story take major importance when caught the interest to become it into films. Greene writes and makes a strong case against American involvement in Vietnam. And he makes this case back in the 1950's towards the end of French involvement in Indochina.
The book is well written and easy to read. The story is not dated at all.

Greene's style combines simplicity and complexity, and the thematic relevance of this novel, render it a deserving read. Additionally, the chronologies and commentaries upon foreign involvement in Indochina/Vietnam are both valuable and blessedly concise, and the collected reviews and critcal commentaries upon the novel serve as valuable tool for understanding.

Our Man in Havana: This comic spy tale set in pre-Castro Cuba concerns an insignificant little man-a vacuum cleaner salesman to be precise-who, against his better judgment. this book is a satirical story and it deals with a theme that Greene has revisited on many occasions that of a spy in a foreign country. He says a few important things about social class, the Catholic Church, and the absurdity of international relations.

03. In your opinion, do you feel the readings you completed are very good or excellent examples of Modernist literature?

Greene in the Quiet American showed his life and he talked about his experiences, people said his writtens were prophecy because that heppened some years later. I think this book is a good example of modernits literature.

Greene in Our Man in Havana novel which established on rocky footing with Cuba’s revolutionary government in 1958. Fidel Castro failed to appreciate Greene’s self-branded "entertainment" novel which sees an absurd Cuban vacuum cleaner salesman foil the British Intelligence with a fabricated spy ring, set against the backdrop of the brutal Batista dictatorship.
“Alas, the book did me little good with the new rulers in Havana,” said Greene. “In poking fun at the British Secret Service, I had minimized the terror of Batista’s rule.” Despite Our Man in Havana’s political blunders, a film adaptation starring Alec Guinness was completed in 1959 and the book garnered international attention during the Cuban Missile Crisis when its depiction of a secret agent “taking aerial photos of strange machinery” rang startlingly true. I think this book also is a good example og modernist literature because the book is related with the events of this times.

04. Would you recommend these readings to your friends and/or family? Why/why not?

I recommend those books because they showed the reality lived in that times and the way relate the stories are very entertaining.

viernes, 17 de septiembre de 2010

Assignment # 1: Victorian Literature

1.- Which 2 readings did you select from the list?

I selected The Sleepy Hollow and The Murders of The Rue Morgue.

2.- Using these readings, compare (3 examples) and contrast (3 examples) the works with the ppt presentations on Victorian Literature and Culture given in class.

In both books related a terror history and crime genre, In both stories we can find wars through all the story the book.

Sleepy Hollow ---------> The ghost of Sleepy Hollow was a soldier who lost his head during a War, it shows rich people superticiuos believes, the life of puritans and inmigration, The village is a peaceful place and people share the characteristic of good people the same as in the Victorian Era.

the murders in the rue morgue ---------> the caracteristics of the places and people's job which are described corresponding to the people of that time. women doesn't take place in the society, good people in this storie always say the truth, they always win and make justicies

3.- Do you feel that the readings you completed are very good or excellent examples of Victorian Literature? Why/ Why not?

In both books show a good representation of the victorian age about places, jobs, characters etc, the difference is the sleepy hollow is a unreal storie and the murders in the rue morgue is a real storie.

4.-Would you recommend these readings to your friends and family? Why / Why not?

I recommend the rue morgue because is a mystery, terror and real storie in which you want to discover the crimes related in it.

sábado, 26 de junio de 2010

Shakespeare and Early Modern English

1. Define and explain, The Great Vowel Shift.

The Great Vowel Shift was a change in the pronunciation of the English Language it means the long vowel form the main difference between the pronunciation of Middle English and Modern English. During the Great Vowel Shift, the two highest long vowels became diphthongs, and the other five underwent an increase in tongue height with one of them coming to the front.

2. Name 5 dialects of Modern English.

American English, Australian English,British English,Canadian English and South African English between others.

3. One of the problems with Early Modern English was a lack of uniformity in spelling. Which 2 people (1-English, 1-American) helped establish standardized spelling?

Early Modern English lacked uniformity in spelling, but Samuel Johnson's dictionary, published in 1755 in England, was influential in establishing a standard form of spelling. Noah Webster did the same in America, publishing his dictionary in 1828; see American and British English spelling differences.

4. How many countries in the world have given Modern English official status?

The Sovereign states that have given to Modern English official status are: 56 approximately.

5. The most recent statistics show that approximately how many people speak Modern English as a:I. First language? II. Second Language?

As a First Language: 309 – 380 million
As a Second Language: 199 – 600 million aprox.

6. When was Early Modern English spoken?

Since the latter half of the 15th century to 1650.

7. How are the use of Pronouns different between Early Modern & Modern English?

In Early Modern English, there were two second person personal pronouns: thou, the informal singular pronoun, and ye, which was both the plural pronoun and the formal singular pronoun.Like other personal pronouns, thou and ye had different forms depending on their grammatical case; specifically, the objective form of thou was thee, its possessive forms were thy and thine, In other respects, the pronouns were much the same as today. One difference is that my and thy became mine and thine before words beginning with a vowel and letter h; thus, mine eyes, thine hand, and so on.

8. Which language families does Modern English belong in?

Indo-European, Germanic, West Germanic, Anglo–Frisian, Anglic.

9. Name 4 worldwide uses for Modern English.

United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada, United States of America between others.

10. In your opinion, what was the greatest influence on the spread of Modern English around the world? Why?

I think the greatest influence on the spread of modern english was the migration of large numbers of people to the United States from others countries. The reason about migrations was the World War I and World War II it allowed the spread of the language for the people, people became to use the language to communicate and some words keep in others cultures.

11. There has been a lot of controversy over the true authorship of Shakespeare's writings. Which 3 people are also candidates as the possible authors of Shakespeare's plays?

The 3 candidates as the possible authors of Shakespeare’s plays are Francis Bacon,Christopher Marlowe and Edward de Vere.

12. Briefly explain The Oxfordian Theory.

The case for Oxford's authorship is based on perceived similarities between Oxford's biography and events in Shakespeare's plays and sonnets; parallels of language, idiom, and thought between Oxford's letters and the Shakespearean canon; and underlined passages in Oxford's Bible that may correspond to quotations in Shakespeare's plays.

13. Shakespeare wrote 38 plays, which according to the Folio Classification, fall into 3 categories. Name the 3 categories.

Comedies, Histories and Tragedies.

14. In which town was Shakespeare born?

He was born in Stratford-upon-Avon.

15. Which famous London theatre (built by actors, for actors) is connected with Shakespeare's plays?

The Globe Theatre

16. Even though Richard III is the most performed play, Hamlet is Shakespeare's most famous play. In your opinion, what does this portion of Hamlet's famous soliloquy mean:

To be or not to be, that is the question;
Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer
The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune,
Or to take arms against a sea of troubles,
And by opposing, end them.
To die, to sleep;
No more; and by a sleep to say we end
The heart-ache and the thousand natural shocks
That flesh is heir to — 'tis a consummation
Devoutly to be wish'd.
To die, to sleep;
To sleep, perchance to dream.
Ay, there's the rub,...

I think Hamlet’s dilemma was the pains of living v/s death. In this soliloquy, he wonders if it is nobler to bear his grief, or to take action.

17. Name 5 post-Shakespearean artists whose work was heavily influenced by the writings of William Shakespeare.

George Steiner, Thomas Hardy, William Faulkner, Charles Dickens and Herman Melville’s.

18. Which of Shakespeare's plays are included in The Wars of the Roses series?

Richard II; Henry IV, Part 1; Henry IV, Part 2; Henry V; Henry VI, Part 1; Henry VI, Part 2; Henry VI, Part 3; and Richard III.

19. Shakespeare wrote most of his works in blank verse composed in iambic pentameter. What is blank verse & iambic pentameter?

Blank verse was Shakespeare's standard poetic form, and this is composed in iambic pentameter. This meant that his verse was usually unrhymed and consisted of ten syllables to a line, spoken with a stress on every second syllable

20. Name 4 actors from Shakepeare's original company.

Richard Burbage, William Kempe, Henry Condell and John Heminges.

21. What were the Wars of the Roses (1377-1485)?

The War of The Roses were a series of dynastic civil wars for the throne of England, fought between supporters of two rival branches of the Royal House of Plantagenet: the houses of Lancaster and York (the "red" and the "white" rose, respectively).

22. Why was this war called the Wars of the Roses?

The Wars of the Roses had got its name because the house of York and the house of Lancaster. Both had a rose in their royal badges. The White rose for the house of York and the red one for the house of Lancaster.

23. What were the names of the 2 houses which fought in this war?

The house of Lancaster, The house of York (The "red" and the "white" rose).

24. What prompted this civil war to begin?

Following the early death of Edward III's heir apparent, there was a series of wars between the descendants of two of Edward III's younger sons: the Duke of Lancaster and the Duke of York because they wanted the throne of England.

25. How did the war end?

After many battles a period of comparative peace followed, but Edward died unexpectedly in 1483. His surviving brother Richard of Gloucester first moved to prevent the unpopular Woodville family of Edward's widow from participating in government during the minority of Edward's son, Edward V, and then seized the throne for himself, using the suspect legitimacy of Edward IV's marriage as pretext. Henry Tudor, a distant relative of the Lancastrian kings who had inherited their claim, overcame and defeated Richard at Bosworth in 1485. He was crowned Henry VII, and married Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV, to unite and reconcile the two houses.

26. Which Kings of England were participants in the Wars of the Roses?

House of York Henry IV (1399 - 1413) and House of Lancaster Edward IV (1461 - 1483)

miércoles, 12 de mayo de 2010

ASSIGNMENT: Middle English

1. Approximately when was Middle English spoken?

Middle english was spoken between the late 11th century and about 1470.

2. What were the major factors which led to the development and the spread of Middle English?

The major factors which led to the development and the spread of the Middle English was the printing press and the variation of the Northumbrian dialect spoken in the southeast Scotland was developing into the Scots language.

3. Match the following Old English words with their Anglo-Norman equivalent:

A. Pig ----------> Pork

B. Cow --------->Beef

C. Wood ------->Forest

D. Sheep ------> Mutton

E. House ------> Mansion

F. Worthy -----> Honourable

G. Bold --------> Courageous

4. Compare & contrast the structure of nouns, pronouns and verbs, between Middle English & Modern English.

Nouns: The strong (e)s plural form has survived into Modern English.

The weak(e)n form is now rare in the standard language, used only in oxen, children and brethren; and it is slightly less rare in some dialects, used in eyen for eyes, shoon for shoes, hosen for hose(s) and kine for cows.

Verbs: The first person singular of verbs in the present tense ends in (E)

(ich here ---> I hear), the second person in (E)st (þou spekest --->thou speakest), and the third person in Eþ (he comeþ ----> he cometh / he comes) ("þ" is pronounced like the unvoiced th in think) Pronouns: The first and second person.

Pronouns: In Old English survived into the Middle English largely unchanged, with only minor spelling variations. In the third person, the masculine accusative singular became HIM. The feminine form was replaced by a form of the demonstrative that developed into SHE, but unsteadily HO remained in some areas for a long time. The lack of a strong standard written form between the eleventh and the fifteenth century makes these changes hard to map.

The overall trend was te gradual reduction in the number of different case endings: the dative case disappeared, but the three other cases were partly retained in personal pronouns, as in HE, HIM AND HIS.

5. How is pronunciation different between Middle English and Modern English?

In general, all letters in Middle English words were pronounced. the silent letters in Modern English come from pronunciation shifts, which means that pronunciation is no longer closely reflected by the written form because of fixed apelling constraints imposed by the invention of dictionaries and printing. Therefore KNIGHT was pronounced (kniçt) with a pronounced "k" as the "gh" as the "ch" in German "Knecht", not (nait) as in Modern English.

6. What is the Chancery Standard, and how did it come into effect?

Chancery Standard was a written form of English by the government bureaucracy and for other official purposes. it come into effect because of the differing dialects of English spoken an written across the country at the time , the government needed a clear and unambiguous form for use in its official documents. Chancery Standard was developed to meet this need.

7. Who wrote the Canterbury Tales?

Geoffrey Chaucer wrote the Canterbury Tales.

8. Describe the medieval pilgrims who journeyed from Canterbury to London.

The pilgrimage was a very prominent feature of medieval society, they believed that each relics had miraculuos powers. Also Pilgrimages also represented the mortal journey to heaven through the struggles of mortal life.

9. Why did the pilgrims take this journey?

Canterbury was a popular destination within England. Saint Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, had been killed in the Canterbury cathedral by knights who had misunderstood Henry II's order during a disagreement between him and Becket. Miracle stories connected to his remains began to spring up soon after his death, and the area became a popular pilgrimage destination. For that reason they wanted to find the holy blessed martyr.

10. It is thought that some of the stories in The Canterbury Tales originated in

Italy. What was the name of the Italian book and who wrote it?

The Decameron by Giovanni Boccaccio

11. The Canterbury Tales is considered an extremely important book, both in terms of English Literature & in the history of English writing. In your opinion, why is this book so important?

I think this book is important because it use the old english language it allow us to know about the roots of the english.

12. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight is:

a. A collection of German folk tales, similar to Grimm's Fairy Tales.

b. A collection of Japanese ghost stories, similar to Kwaidan.

c. A detailed explanation of the proper etiquette & behaviour for all knights in Medieval Europe.

d. A medieval romance poem, with Arthurian themes.

e. None of the above.

f. All of the above.

13. Who is Sir Gawain?

Sir Gawain is a knight of King Arthur's round table.

14. What is the challenge that The Green Knight proposes to the Knights of the Round Table?

The Green Knight offers to allow anyone to strike him with his axe if the challenger will take a return blow in a year and a day.

15. What is the similarity between Sir Gawain and the Green Knight and the Irish tale of Cúchulainn?

The earliest known story to feature a beheading game is the 8th-century Middle Irish tale Bricriu's Feast This story parallels Gawain in that, like the Green Knight, Cú Chulainn's antagonist feints three blows with the axe before letting his target depart without injury.

16. What is the importance of the pentagram/pentangle in the poem?

The pentangle on Gawain's shield is seen by many critics as signifying Gawain's perfection and power over evil.

17. How are numbers used to symbolize events in the poem?

The poet highlights number symbolism to add symmetry and meaning to the poem. For example, three kisses are exchanged between Gawain and Bertilak's wife; Gawain is tempted by her on three separate days; Bertilak goes hunting three times, and the Green Knight swings at Gawain three times with his axe. The number two also appears repeatedly, as in the two beheading scenes, two confession scenes, and two castles. The five points of the pentangle represent Gawain's virtues, for he is "faithful five ways and five times each". All five of his senses are without fault; his five fingers never fail him, and he always remembers the five wounds of Christ, the five joys of the Virgin Mary. The fifth five is Gawain himself, who embodies the five moral virtues of the code of chivalry: "friendship, generosity, chastity, courtesy, and piety" All of these virtues reside, as the poet says, in the "Endless Knot" of the pentangle, which forever interlinks and is never broken.

18. What is the significance of Sir Gawain's neck wound?

During the medieval period, the body and the soul were believed to be so intimately connected that wounds were considered an outward sign of inward sin. The neck, specifically, was believed to correlate with the part of the soul related to will, connecting the reasoning part (the head) and the courageous part (the heart).

19. Which actor played The Green Knight in the film adaptation, Sword of the Valiant?

The actor who played in the film was Sean Connery as the Green Knight.

20. In many ways this poem is, in the modern sense, a soap opera. Compare Sir Gawain and the Green Knight with a modern Chilean teleseries.

jueves, 15 de abril de 2010

My Memories Since Now

It was quiet, nobody of my family thought it could happen.
There were two warnings, but he couldn't see them and we did not too by that time he had three heart attacks.
One night we went for help and at that moment. I felt I was losing my father.
It was one of the worse moment of my life. Thanks god! my daddy is still with us.

jueves, 1 de abril de 2010


1.When was old english spoken?
Old english was spoken between at least the mid 5th century and the mid 12th

2.Name 4 language groups which influenced the development of Old English.
West Germanic,Latin, Old Norse, Old Frisian

3.In the phonology section, name 5 phonetical differents between old english and
modern english.
-/w/ Old english: Velar and AproximantModer English: Bilabial and Aproximant-/ʒ/ Old English: It wasn’t used.

-In Old english we can find 14 vowals, now on days we only have 12.-The front mid rounded vowels /ø(ː)/ occur in some dialects of Old English.

In Modern English we find eight diphthongs, in Old English it was only six.

4.Are there any similarites between Old English and Modern English? Name them.
There are some similar consonants and allophones.

5.In the Orthography section, enlarge the picture of the runic alphabet. How many
letters (runes) are there in this alphabet?
There are 34 runes

6.Which epic poem was originally written in Old English?

7.In the See Also section, click on: Beowulf. Appoximately when was Beowulf written?
It was written between the 8th and the early 11th century.

8.Even though Beowulf was written in England, the story takes place in which
The story takes place in Sweden and Denmark.

9.In the poem, which 3 antagonists does Beowulf battle or fight against?
Grendel, Grendel’s Mother and the dragon

10.What happens to Beowulf at the end of the story?
Beowulf died after the final battle against the dragon.

11.Who was the author of Beowulf?
The author of this poem is unknown

12.What were the titles and the dates of the two film versions of Beowulf?
Beowulf (1999)

Beowulf (2007)